Classical Music: Joseph Haydn, Flute Concerto in D Major



Classical Music: Joseph Haydn, Flute Concerto in D Major

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Franz Joseph Haydn[a] (/ˈhaɪdən/; German: [ˈfʁants ˈjoːzɛf ˈhaɪdn̩] (About this sound listens); 31 March 1732 – 31 May 1809) was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio. His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets “Father of the Symphony” and “Father of the String Quartet”.

Haydn spent much of his career as a court musician for the wealthy Esterházy family at their remote estate. Until the later part of his life, this isolated him from other composers and trends in music so that he was, as he put it, “forced to become original”.[c] Yet his music circulated widely, and for much of his career, he was the most celebrated composer in Europe.

He was a friend and mentor of Mozart, a tutor of Beethoven, and the older brother of composer Michael Haydn.

Struggles as a freelancer
By 1749, Haydn had matured physically to the point that he was no longer able to sing high choral parts. Empress Maria Theresa herself complained to Reutter about his singing, calling it “crowing”. One day, Haydn carried out a prank, snipping off the pigtail of a fellow chorister. This was enough for Reutter: Haydn was first caned, then summarily dismissed and sent into the streets. He had the good fortune to be taken in by a friend, Johann Michael Spangler, who shared his family’s crowded garret room with Haydn for a few months. Haydn immediately began his pursuit of a career as a freelance musician.

The Morzin palace in Dolní Lukavice, Czech Republic
Haydn struggled at first, working at many different jobs: as a music teacher, as a street serenader, and eventually, in 1752, as valet–accompanist for the Italian composer Nicola Porpora, from whom he later said he learned “the true fundamentals of composition”. He was also briefly in Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz’s employ, playing the organ in the Bohemian Chancellery chapel at the Judenplatz.

While a chorister, Haydn had not received any systematic training in music theory and composition. As a remedy, he worked his way through the counterpoint exercises in the text Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux and carefully studied the work of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, whom he later acknowledged as an important influence. As his skills increased, Haydn began to acquire a public reputation, first as the composer of an opera, Der krumme Teufel, “The Limping Devil”, written for the comic actor Johann Joseph Felix Kurz, whose stage name was “Bernardon”. The work was premiered successfully in 1753, but was soon closed down by the censors due to “offensive remarks”. Haydn also noticed, apparently without annoyance, that works he had simply given away were being published and sold in local music shops. Between 1754 and 1756 Haydn also worked freelance for the court in Vienna. He was among several musicians who were paid for services as supplementary musicians at balls given for the imperial children during carnival season, and as supplementary singers in the imperial chapel (the Hofkapelle) in Lent and Holy Week.

Learn MORE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Haydn

Works
Main article: List of compositions by Joseph Haydn: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_compositions_by_Joseph_Haydn

James Webster summarizes Haydn’s role in the history of classical music as follows: “He excelled in every musical genre. … He is familiarly known as the ‘father of the symphony’ and could with greater justice be thus regarded for the string quartet; no other composer approaches his combination of productivity, quality and historical importance in these genres.”

Structure and character of his music
A central characteristic of Haydn’s music is the development of larger structures out of very short, simple musical motifs, often derived from standard accompanying figures. The music is often quite formally concentrated, and the important musical events of a movement can unfold rather quickly.

Learn MORE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Haydn

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Additional Music: https://www.bensound.com

Source Materials:
https://amzn.to/2WRvRb7
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Haydn
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_concertos_by_Joseph_Haydn
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_compositions_by_Joseph_Haydn

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